# 直方图

演示如何使用matplotlib绘制直方图。

import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import numpy as np
from matplotlib import colors
from matplotlib.ticker import PercentFormatter

# Fixing random state for reproducibility
np.random.seed(19680801)

# 生成数据并绘制简单的直方图

要生成一维直方图,我们只需要一个数字矢量。对于二维直方图,我们需要第二个矢量。我们将在下面生成两者,并显示每个向量的直方图。

N_points = 100000
n_bins = 20

# Generate a normal distribution, center at x=0 and y=5
x = np.random.randn(N_points)
y = .4 * x + np.random.randn(100000) + 5

fig, axs = plt.subplots(1, 2, sharey=True, tight_layout=True)

# We can set the number of bins with the `bins` kwarg
axs[0].hist(x, bins=n_bins)
axs[1].hist(y, bins=n_bins)

直方图示例

# 更新直方图颜色

直方图方法(除其他外)返回一个修补程序对象。这使我们可以访问所绘制对象的特性。使用这个,我们可以根据自己的喜好编辑直方图。让我们根据每个条的y值更改其颜色。

fig, axs = plt.subplots(1, 2, tight_layout=True)

# N is the count in each bin, bins is the lower-limit of the bin
N, bins, patches = axs[0].hist(x, bins=n_bins)

# We'll color code by height, but you could use any scalar
fracs = N / N.max()

# we need to normalize the data to 0..1 for the full range of the colormap
norm = colors.Normalize(fracs.min(), fracs.max())

# Now, we'll loop through our objects and set the color of each accordingly
for thisfrac, thispatch in zip(fracs, patches):
    color = plt.cm.viridis(norm(thisfrac))
    thispatch.set_facecolor(color)

# We can also normalize our inputs by the total number of counts
axs[1].hist(x, bins=n_bins, density=True)

# Now we format the y-axis to display percentage
axs[1].yaxis.set_major_formatter(PercentFormatter(xmax=1))

直方图示例2

# 绘制二维直方图

要绘制二维直方图,只需两个长度相同的向量,对应于直方图的每个轴。

fig, ax = plt.subplots(tight_layout=True)
hist = ax.hist2d(x, y)

直方图示例3

# 自定义直方图

自定义2D直方图类似于1D情况,您可以控制可视组件,如存储箱大小或颜色规格化。

fig, axs = plt.subplots(3, 1, figsize=(5, 15), sharex=True, sharey=True,
                        tight_layout=True)

# We can increase the number of bins on each axis
axs[0].hist2d(x, y, bins=40)

# As well as define normalization of the colors
axs[1].hist2d(x, y, bins=40, norm=colors.LogNorm())

# We can also define custom numbers of bins for each axis
axs[2].hist2d(x, y, bins=(80, 10), norm=colors.LogNorm())

plt.show()

直方图示例4

# 下载这个示例